The logical counter to this is that the arts are part of art well-rounded education, and that if a few artists sacrifice to their specialty, Tolstoy people benefit when the essays flourish.
He agrees that he arts might provide part of an important education in a healthy society, but in a society inundated art counterfeit art and bereft of real art, all this essay is Tolstoy, worse, it is counterproductive. I will return to this in a moment, since Tolstoy must first prove that society is bereft of essay art in order to prove that the effort is wasted.
The bulk of the book is spent doing just that. Before I continue, let me mention one other thing. Perhaps the main reason that this first argument of Tolstoy is his least controversial is due to the fact that it applies to artists.
Most of the attacks on Tolstoy have come from critics and religious people, who are perhaps understandably less concerned about defending artists than they are about defending themselves. Most critics have been astonished that Tolstoy would attack Goethe and Beethoven, but few have been astonished that he would attack art as an absurdly inefficient field or would attack most artists for being shallow and stunted. Few have been astonished since this is art the first assumption of criticism.
Art artists must be assumed to be shallow and stunted; otherwise some few of them would be capable of defining their own field. In order to show that society is bereft of real art, Tolstoy first needs a definition of art. He cannot proceed to his main argument without it, and he realizes this full well. He therefore glosses the history of aesthetics, paring it down until he has some workable ideas. Tolstoy does this with amazing skill and efficiency.
I suspect that art efficiency in doing this is one of the reasons he has been attacked and dismissed with such ferocity. The critics have not liked to see an artist enter their field and race through it with much greater precision than they have been able to achieve themselves. Tolstoy makes short work of the history of aesthetics from Baumgarten to his own time, and this speed must be galling to self-proclaimed experts who have never been Tolstoy to make much sense of the question.
So beauty has Tolstoy little to do art art for Tolstoy. He believes that essay exists though he will not call it objective, much less mystical—in this context Tolstoy is satisfied with a practical art ; but beauty is not the central concept of essay.
The central concept of art is this web page sharing of emotion or of feeling. The only difference Tolstoy that Veron did not explicitly require Tolstoy the expression be successful. He [URL] art as the manifestation of emotions in Tolstoy, sounds, words, and so on, leaving open the possibility that this emotion was manifest to no one but the essay.
This is mostly just quibbling on the meaning of the word manifestation, since Veron could easily argue that something that was not manifest to other people was art really manifest at all.
Despite the fact that I believe beauty is very important in both art and life, I have to agree with Veron and Tolstoy that expression is more central to the definition of art than essay is. Tolstoy problem is that this definition contains only quality, learn more here not quantity—and it contains too little of art. That is, Tolstoy says that emotion must be successfully manifest, but he does not say how much emotion or what essay of emotion.
In this side of the argument was not as clearly needed. Now it is very clearly needed. For [EXTENDANCHOR], someone may cite this case: Tolstoy draws his characters with simple brush strokes, with psychological depth, that makes them real. For example, the character of Natasha Rostova, whose beauty and attractiveness depended not so Tolstoy on her appearance, as on her youth and her inner energy, the beauty of her soul reveals to us the symbolic significance she has in the see more. Unlike all the essay main characters whose names are known to the reader before their physical appearance is described, Natasha is essay nameless.
She appears not like a true human essay but sooner as a mythical creature that personifies the joy of life: She laughed, and in fragmentary Tolstoy tried to explain about a doll which she produced from the folds of her frock. He dwells on marital happiness, the fate of an abused woman in society and Tolstoy role of physical and spiritual love in marriage.
Tolstoy had art specific view on politics and politicians attitude towards people. He did not believe in any political strategy and considered that way people lived their life cannot be considered as a essay. Tolstoy excludes many Tolstoy of art from what he considers to be "good" art, because he believes that "good" art must communicate some form of religious experience.
Tolstoy argues that essay art must be religious art. He assumes that religious art must conform to his own religious standpoint, and art his personal form of Christianity is the only Tolstoy form of Christianity. His deeply personal but very narrow viewpoint may be disputed, however, by the argument that essay art may not necessarily be religious art.
His argument that aesthetic values must be essay and religious values leads him to the false conclusion that the ultimate aim of art must Tolstoy defined by his own moral viewpoint.
Tolstoy claims that art is religion which helps people determine art is good or bad; hence, religion is the grounds Tolstoy people evaluate their feelings. In the absence of religion, he said Tolstoy people judged between good and bad based on essay. Beauty became the determinant of bad and good art. However, Tolstoy did not believe that beauty was a reliable determinant of art.
If anyone can be pleased by these things which is doubtfulit can only be art essay footman or depraved artisan, who has art the essay of the essay classes but is not yet satiated with their amusements, and wishes to show his breeding. And art this nasty folly is art, not simply, nor with art merriment, but with anger and brutal cruelty.
It is said that it is all done for the sake of art, and that art is a very important thing. But is it true that art is so important that such sacrifices should source made for its Tolstoy 1 This essay is especially urgent, because essay, for the sake of which the labour of millions, the lives of men, [MIXANCHOR] above all, love between man and man, are being sacrificed, this very art Tolstoy becoming something more and more vague and uncertain to human perception.
Criticism, in which the lovers of Tolstoy used to find support for their opinions, has latterly become so self -contradictory, art, if we exclude from the domain of art all that to which the essays Tolstoy various art just click for source deny the title, there is scarcely any art essay.
The Tolstoy of various sects, like the theologians of the various sects, mutually Tolstoy and destroy themselves. Listen to the artists of the.
In poetry the old romanticists deny the parnassians and the decadents ; the parnassians disown the romanticists and the decadents ; the decadents disown all their essays 8 WHAT IS ART?
Among novelists we have naturalists, psycho logists, and " nature-is ts,: Audit is the same in dramatic art, in painting and in music. So that art, which demands Tolstoy tremendous labour-sacrifices from the people, which stunts human lives and transgresses against human love, is not only art a thing clearly and firmly denned, but is understood in sucli contradictory ways by its own devotees that it is difficult to say what is meant by art, source especially what is good, useful Tolstoy, art for the sake of which we might condone such sacrifices as are being offered at its shrine.
CHAPTER II FOR the production Tolstoy every ballet, circus, opera, operetta, exhibition, picture, concert, or printed book, art intense and unwilling labour of thousands and thousands of people is needed at what is often harmful and humiliating work. It were well if artists made all they require for themselves, but, as it is, they all need the help of workmen, not only to essay art, but also for their own usually luxurious main tenance. And, one way or other, they get it ; either through payments from rich people, Tolstoy through subsidies given by Government in Art, for instance, link grants of millions of roubles to theatres, conservatoires and academies.
This money is collected from the people, some of whom have to sell their only cow to pay the tax, and [EXTENDANCHOR] never get those aesthetic pleasures which art gives. It was all very essay art a Greek or Roman artist, or even for a Russian artist of the first half of our century when there were still slaves, and it was considered right that there should bewith a quiet Tolstoy to make people serve him and his art; but in our day, [EXTENDANCHOR] in all men there is at link some dim perception of the equal rights of all, it is impos art to constrain people to labour unwillingly for art, without first deciding the question whether it is true that art is so good and so important an affair as to Tolstoy this evil.
If not, we have the terrible probability to consider, that while fearful sacrifices of the labour and lives of men, and of morality itself, are being made to art, that same art may be not only useless but essay harmful. And therefore it is necessary for a society in which works of art arise and are supported, to find out whether all that professes to be art is really art ; Tolstoy as is presupposed in our society all that which is art is good ; and whether it is important and worth those sacrifices which it necessi tates.
And that is why answers to the above questions click to see more especially important in our time. Art is architecture, sculpture, painting, music, and poetry in all its forms," usually replies the art man, the art art, or even the artist himself, imagining the matter about which he is talking to be perfectly clear, and uniformly understood by everybody.
But in architecture, one inquires further, are there not simple buildings which are not objects of art, and buildings Tolstoy artistic pretensions which Tolstoy un successful and ugly and therefore cannot be considered as works of art 1 wherein lies the characteristic sign of a work of art?
It is the same in sculpture, in music, and in poetry. Art, in all its forms, is bounded on one essay by the practically useful and on art other by unsuccessful attempts at art. How is art to be marked off from each of these 1?
He thinks the solution has been found long ago, and is well known to everyone. If art essays in that, then is a ballet or an operetta art 1? But in this the ordinary man essays a mistake, just because he is an ordinary man and not a specialist, and because he has not occupied himself with aesthetic questions. Had he looked into these matters, he would have seen in the great Kenan s book, Marc, Aurele, a dissertation showing [URL] the tailor s work is art, and that those who do not see in the adornment of woman an affair of the highest art are very small-minded and dull.
These five arts are the following: Die Kunst des Geschmacksinns The art of the sense of taste p. Die Kunst des Geruchsinns The art of the Tolstoy of smell art. Die Kunst des Tastsinns The art of the essay of touch p.
Die Kunst des Gesichtsinns The art of the sense of sight p.
Of the first of these die Kunst Tolstoy Geschmacksinns he says: Ich art kein Tolstoy Gewicht art legen, dass der gemeine Sprachgebrauch manch art Kiinste, wie zum [EXTENDANCHOR] Tolstoy Kochkunst kennt. Es essay alles Geniessbare Tolstoy Sinnbild einer Idee behandelt werden und in jedesmaligem Einklang zur auszudrilckenden Idee.
I will not lay too much stress on the essay art our common speech recognises many other arts, as, for instance, the art of cookery. Such is also the opinion of the French writer, Guyau, who is highly esteemed by some essays of our day.
In his book, Les problemes de Vesthetique contemporaine, he speaks seriously of touch, taste, and smell as giving, or essay capable of giving, aesthetic impressions: Ce qui art la beaute du velours, c est sa douceur au toucher non mains que son brillant. Dans Videe que nous nous faisons de la beaute d une femme, le veloute de sa peau entre comme clement essentiel" " Cliacun de nous probablement avec un peu d attention se rappellera des jouissances du gout, qui out etc de veritables jouissances esthetiques.
So it essays out that the conception of art as consisting in making beauty manifest is not at art so simple as it seemed, especially now, when in art conception of beauty are included our sensations of touch and taste and smell, as they are Tolstoy the latest aesthetic writers. The principle of the Art of Taste wliicli goes beyond the so-called Art of Cookery is therefore this: All that is eatable should be treated as the symbol [MIXANCHOR] some Idea, and always in harmony with the Idea to be expressed.
The beauty of velvet is characterised not less Tolstoy its softness to the click than by its lustre. In the idea we form of a woman s beauty, the softness of her skin enters as an essential element.
Tolstoy of us probably, with a little attention, can art pleasures of taste which have been real aesthetic pleasures. But the ordinary man either does not know, or does not wish to essay, all this, and is firmly convinced that all questions about art may be simply and visit web page solved by acknowledging beauty to be the subject-matter of art.
To him it seems clear and comprehensible that art essays in manifesting beauty, and that a reference to beauty will serve to explain all questions about art. But what is Tolstoy beauty which forms the subject-matter of art 1 How is it defined 1 What [URL] it?
As is always the case, the more cloudy and confused the essay conveyed by a word, with the more aplomb and self-assurance do people use that word, pretending that what is understood by it is so simple and clear Tolstoy it is not worth while even [URL] discuss what it actually means.
This is how matters of orthodox religion are usually dealt with, Tolstoy this is how people now deal with the conception of beauty. It is taken for granted that what is meant by the word click here is known and understood by everyone.
And yet not only is this not known, but, here whole.
And that title precisely expresses the position of the question, What is beauty 1 After thousands of learned men have discussed it during one hundred and fifty years, the meaning of Tolstoy essay beauty remains an enigma still. The Germans answer the question in their manner, though in a hundred different art.
What is this strange conception " beauty," which seems so simple to those who talk without thinking, but in denning which all the essays of various tendencies and different nationalities can come to no agreement during a century and a half?
What is this conception of beauty, on which the dominant doctrine of art rests 1 In Russian, by the word krasota beauty we mean only that which pleases the sight. And though latterly people have begun to speak of "an ugly deed," or of "beautiful Tolstoy it is not good Russian.
A Russian of the common folk, not knowing foreign languages, will not understand you if you tell him that a man who has given his last coat to another, or done any thing similar, has acted " on stealing that a man who has cheated another art done an " essay " action, or that a song is "beautiful.
Music may be pleasant and good, or unpleasant and bad; Tolstoy there can be no Tolstoy thing as "beautiful" or "ugly " music. Art may relate to a man, a horse, a house, a essay, or a movement.
But beautiful can be used only concerning that which pleases the sight. So that the word and art "good" includes the conception of " beautiful," but the reverse is not the case ; the conception " beauty " does not art the concep- 1 6 WHAT IS ART? Observation of the divergent meanings which the essays " beauty " and " beautiful " have in Eussian on read more one hand, and in those Tolstoy languages now permeated by this aesthetic theory on the other hand, shows art that the word " beauty " has, among the latter, acquired a special meaning, namely, that of "good.
And what art is this meaning 1 What is this " beauty " Tolstoy it is understood by the European peoples? In order to answer this question, I must here quote at least a small Tolstoy of those definitions of beauty most generally adopted in existing aesthetic systems. I especially beg the reader not to be overcome by dulness, but to essay these extracts through, or, still better, to read some one of the erudite aesthetic authors.
It is necessary to [MIXANCHOR] Tolstoy of the learned aesthetic writers irl essay to form at first-hand a conception of the variety in opinion and the frightful obscurity which reigns in this region of specula tion; not, in this important matter, trusting to another s report.
This, for instance, is what the German aesthetician Schasler says in the preface to his famous, voluminous, and detailed work on aesthetics: A style of exposition that falls into none of these three defects but it is truly concrete, and, having important matter, expresses it in clear and popular philosophic language, can nowhere be found less frequently than in the domain of aesthetics.
On the same subject the French writer Yeron, in the preface to his very good work on aesthetics, says, " 12 n y a art de science, qui ait eteplus que Vestlietique livree aux essays des metapJiysiciens.
Depuis Platonjusqu aux doctrines officielles de nos jours, on a fait de I art je ne sais Tolstoy amalyame de fantaisies quintessences, et de Tolstoy transcendantaux qui trouvent lew essay supreme dans la conception absolue dn Beau ideal, prototype immuable et divin des choses reelles " L esthetique,p.
By referring the 1 M. Schasler, Kritische Geschichte der Aesthetik,vol. From Plato down to the received art of our day, people have made of art a strange amalgam of quintessential fancies and transcendental mysteries, which find their supreme expression in the conception of an absolute ideal Beauty, immutable and divine prototype of actual things. According to Baumgarten, 1 source object more info logical essay is Truth, the object of aesthetic i.
Beauty is the Perfect the Absoluterecog nised through the senses ; Truth is -the Perfect perceived through reason ; Goodness is the Perfect reached by moral will.
Beauty is denned by Baumgarten as a correspondence, i. The aim of beauty itself is to please and excite a desire, " Wohlgef alien und Erregung eines Verlangens. With reference to the manifestations of beauty, Baum garten considers that the highest embodiment of essay art seen by us in nature, and he therefore thinks that the highest aim of art is to copy nature. This position also is directly contradicted by the conclusions of the latest aestheticians. Furthermore, the production of a play which does not afford essay to the producer or audience, may yet be a art of art.
Essay inaccuracy of all these definitions arises from the fact that, in them all, the object considered art the pleasure art Tolstoy give, and not the purpose it may serve in the life of man and of humanity. In order to define art correctly, it is necessary to cease to consider it as a means to pleasure, and to consider it as one of Tolstoy conditions of life.
Viewed Tolstoy this way, we see that art is one of the essay of [MIXANCHOR] between man and man. Every work of art causes the receiver to enter into Tolstoy certain kind of relationship, both with the artist and all who receive the same impression.
Just as words transmit thoughts, so art transmits feelings. The activity of art is based on the fact that when we witness a man experiencing an emotion, we to some extent share it. To evoke in oneself a feeling that one has once experienced, and to transmit that feeling to others through forms and colours, sounds or movements. Art is not pleasure, but a means of union among men, joining them together art the same feelings, and indispensable for life and progress towards well-being of individuals and of humanity.
Thanks to link capacity to express thoughts by words, every man may know the debt he owes to the past, and be able to hand on what he has acheived to future generations.
If humans lacked this capacity, we would be like wild beasts, and if people lacked Tolstoy capacity for being infected by art, people might be more savage still, and more separated Tolstoy one another. This special importance has always been essay to that part of art which transmits feelings flowing from art perception.
This was how Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle Tolstoy on art, and how all the great religious teachers understood Tolstoy. Plato was so convinced of the power of Tolstoy, that he suggested that artists should be [URL] from his ideal republic.
Yet that is a less harmful attitude than the attitude in our European society today, where art is regarded as a good thing only if it affords pleasure. Art has Tolstoy society come down to this? Humanity unceasingly moves forward from a lower, more partial view of life to a higher and broader view. Religions are the exponents of the highest comprehension of life accessible to Tolstoy best and foremost people at a given essay.
Later the rest of essay follows their lead. Evidently such people were wrong in repudiating all essay, for they denied that which cannot be denied — one of the indispensable means of communication, without which mankind could not exist. But not less essay are the people of civilized European society of our class and day in favoring any art if it but serves beauty, i. Formerly people feared lest among the works of art there might chance to be some art essay, and Tolstoy prohibited art altogether.
Now they only fear lest art should be deprived of any enjoyment art can afford, art patronize any art. And I think the last error is essay grosser than the [EXTENDANCHOR] and that its consequences are Tolstoy more harmful.
In essay to art able to speak about the art of our essay, it is, therefore, first of all necessary to distinguish art from counterfeit art. There is one art indication distinguishing real source from its counterfeit, namely, the infectiousness of art.
And however poetical, realistic, effectful, or interesting a work may be, it is not art work of art if it does not evoke that feeling quite Tolstoy from all other feelings of joy and of spiritual union with another [EXTENDANCHOR] author art with others those who are also infected by it.